Age-related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disabling eye condition that causes gradual decline of central vision. AMD affects a central area of the retina known as the macula, which is responsible for sharp central vision required for everyday activities such as reading, watching television, driving and facial recognition. Although AMD does not usually lead to complete blindness (peripheral vision is maintained), loss of central vision may have a major impact on a person’s independence and quality of life.

AMD is a complex disease and is thought to have several different causes. A number of genetic and environmental risk factors have been associated with the development of AMD.

Non-modifiable risk factors are age (increasing), race (white European), sex (female), family history & genetics (first degree relative).

Modifiable risk factors are smoking, diet (several eye health cookbooks have been written by professionals in the field), physical activity and hypertension.



Access the full bibliography here.